The Impact of Holy Land Crusades on State Formation: War Mobilization, Trade Integration, and Political Development in Medieval Europe

LISA BLAYDES AND CHRISTOPHER PAIK
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION, VOLUME 70, ISSUE 3

Abstract: Holy Land Crusades were among the most significant forms of military mobilization to occur during the medieval period. Crusader mobilization had important implications for European state formation. We find that areas with large numbers of Holy Land crusaders witnessed increased political stability and institutional development as well as greater urbanization associated with rising trade and capital accumulation, even after taking into account underlying levels of religiosity and economic development. Our findings contribute to a scholarly debate regarding when the essential elements of the modern state first began to appear. Although our causal mechanisms—which focus on the importance of war preparation and urban capital accumulation—resemble those emphasized by previous research, we date the point of critical transition to statehood centuries earlier, in line with scholars who emphasize the medieval origins of the modern state. We also point to one avenue by which the rise of Muslim military and political power may have affected European institutional development.

Two Concepts of Religious Liberty: The Natural Rights and Moral Autonomy Approaches to the Free Exercise of Religion

VINCENT PHILLIP MUÑOZ
AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 110.2 (2016): 369-381

Abstract: Due in part to the influence of Michael McConnell, free exercise exemptionism is generally thought to be compatible with, if not dictated by, the founders’ church-state political philosophy. This article rejects that position, arguing instead that America’s constitutional tradition offers two distinct conceptions of religious liberty: the founders’ natural rights free exercise and modern moral autonomy exemptionism. The article aims to distinguish these two approaches by clarifying how they are grounded upon divergent philosophical understandings of human freedom and by explaining how they advance different views of what religious liberty is, how it is threatened, and, accordingly, how it is best protected. The article also attempts to demonstrate how our modern approach expands the protection for religious liberty in some ways but limits it in others.

Symposium: My Understanding of Adam Smith’s Impartial Spectator

ECON JOURNAL WATCH 13.2 (2016)

The mysterious impartial spectator is addressed by leading Smith scholars: What is the impartial spectator, in Smith’s highest sense of that expression? Does the impartial spectator have knowledge that is super-human? Is it universal? How does the impartial spectator relate to “the man within the breast”? To the being whose hand is invisible? To God?

Contributions:

The Rule of Law and Constitutionalism in Muslim Countries

JERG GUTMAN, STEFAN VOIGT
PUBLIC CHOICE (2015). ADVANCED ONLINE PUBLICATION. 10.1007/s11127-015-0237-z

Abstract: Recently, several Muslim countries have ratified new constitutions. In this paper, we ask two questions: first, whether Muslim influence has a discernible impact on the content of such constitutions and, second, whether it has an impact on constitutional reality. More precisely, we are interested in the consequences of Islam for institutions securing the rule of law, while taking competing socioeconomic, geographic, and historical explanations explicitly into account. Continue reading

Checks and Balances for Democratic Souls: Alexis de Tocqueville on Religion in Democratic Societies

ALAN S. KAHAN
AMERICAN POLITICAL THOUGHT 4.1 (2015): 100-119

Abstract: For Tocqueville, well-balanced souls were as important to freedom as a well-balanced constitution. Such spiritual checks and balances were essential, in his view, for the preservation of political freedom and individual human greatness. Religion was the prime source of such spiritual checks and balances, offering a parallel source for the checks and balances to democracy provided by secular mechanisms such as associations and self-interest well understood. Continue reading

Church and State in the Founding-Era State Constitutions

VINCENT PHILLIP MUÑOZ
AMERICAN POLITICAL THOUGHT 4.1 (2015): 1-38

Abstract: An enormous effort has been dedicated to uncovering the original meaning of the First Amendment’s Religion Clauses, but, surprisingly, little research has been directed toward the founding-era state constitutions on church and state. This article aims to open a field of inquiry by making the church-state provisions of the founding-era state constitutions more accessible. Continue reading

Lockean Toleration and the Victim’s Perspective

GREGORY CONTI
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL THEORY 14.1 (2014): 176-197

According to Jeremy Waldron, John Locke’s argument for the instrumental irrationality of persecution is fatally flawed. In this paper, Conti offers evidence that Waldron has misread Locke, and that Locke’s views about why persecution generally proves inefficacious have greater plausibility than Waldron allowed. Continue reading